This paper presents a common approach for the unit commitment problem solving in a dispersed power system involving renewable energy sources on the example of Kazakhstan. The proposed methodology will help all interested organizations and structures to see the possibility of covering the shortage of power generation capacities by increasing the share of renewable energy sources in generating electricity and their parallel work with the existing generation facilities instead of commissioning of traditional energy sources. Also, according to this methodology, there is a possibility to choose the optimal source of renewable energy and the possibility of testing the operation of a part of the dispersed power system, as autonomous. This methodology includes the analyzing of impact of the regional and global energy trends, legislation and the potential for renewable energy sources. The numerical results show the possibility of solving the problem of unit commitment with renewables with the least operating costs and with the most optimal renewable energy source type in the region.
In the world of rapidly growing global liberalization, the issue of the relationship between international trade and economic growth has become increasingly important. While the benefits of trade creation are widely recognized among economists and policy makers alike, the growing proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has led to a debate on the impacts of RTAs on their member countries. As far as Ukraine is concerned, two main options of regional economic integration are on the agenda: the establishment of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with the EU and the participation in the recently formed Customs Union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan (CU RBK). While it is possible for a country to participate in several regional trade agreements at the same time, Ukraine appears to be in a unique situation where a full membership in CU RBK is incompatible with the free trade regime of the DCFTA. Although entry into both RTAs would be the best solution, Ukraine s current situation forces the country to make a strategic choice of which partner to ally with. The objective of this work is to provide a holistic analysis of both RTAs and their potential impact on the economy of Ukraine in terms of economic growth and other related aspects.
Governments and global development agencies consider tourism to be a key tool by which developing countries can diversify their economies and lift populations from the grips of poverty. Its "sustainable" image lends itself specifically to the development of rural economies. The growth of ecological, cultural, and adventure tourism has assisted in propelling tourism forward as the "sexy" development option for rural communities. What About The Locals?: Impacts of Tourism Development on Mountain Communities in Central Asia, explores the development of tourism in the mountain regions of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Local, regional, and national governments work closely with global development agencies and international tourism firms to foster investment and infrastructure development, with the intended goal of increasing skilled employment, entreprenuerialism, and taxable revenue. Dr. Allen's indepth case studies reveal that, despite good intentions, tourism development can lead to unequal competition between international and locally based firms, degradation of local ecosystems, and rarely provides stable skilled employment.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union has caused manyconflicts of different types in the Caucasus region.Among them, the conflict in Nagorno- Karabakh turnedout to be the most intractable dispute since it hadthe properties of a modern global conflict in termsof territorial, ethnic and national dimensions,intertwined with a historical burden of ancientgrievances. Many major states and regional actorssuch as Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey and OSCE,initiated third party mediation in order to resolvethe conflict and to terminate violence. Today, manycritics argue that the mediators were to blame forthe delay of a peaceful settlement since they gavefirst priority to their own interests and stalled thenegotiation process. In this book, the author'sapproach is predicated on various theoreticalframeworks of mediation. The contribution of themediators to the failure of negotiations is examinedwith a focus on the third party mediation, variablesconcerning the mediator, the conflict and thenegotiation process. In doing so, the author findsthe mediator motives to be of great significance whenit comes to conflict settlement in strategicallyimportant regions.
'Geopolitics of Central Asia: China-US Engagement' signifies the increasing engagement of US and China over the geopolitical landscape of Central Asia just not keeping an eye on the natural resources and geo-strategic position of the region but to draw out a balance of power in Asia by engaging each other. Central Asia as a single geographical entity consists five republics of the former Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The landmass always known as 'heartland' has been recognised as the region of strategic importance, because of its critical position at the crossroads of Russia, China and the Islamic World. Its importance has been further accentuated with the presence of huge hub of untaped energy resources in the region. Whether part of Mackinder's World Island, Spykman's Rimland or Cohen's Shatterblt region, Central Asia has always been seen as a region of strategic importance for global powers and has generated tremendous global interests. The present book is an endeavour to look into the growing U.S.-China involvement in Central Asia and their policy implications on the local and regional security.
Kazakhstan is a developing nation situated in Central Asia. Despite its vast natural resources, from the oil rich west and mineral rich east, suffers from regional disparity. Because of Kazakhstan s relatively large area and low level of inhabitants, the population is concentrated in a few regions, causing large distances between cities. To help solve this problem this paper looks at the possibility of high-speed trains (HSTs) to create agglomeration economies. This is done through extensive review of literature on the academic side of transport and urban economics and also includes case studies where scholars review operational HST networks. The benefit of this is that the reader is presented with both a theoretical as well as empirical aspects in reviewing the possibility of introducing a HST in Kazakhstan. Despite the optimistic benefits stated by scholars for a successful investment and a positively impacting project on the regional scale, this paper concludes that HSTs do not have a place in Kazakhstan yet, due to the lack of conditions and circumstances that have been responsible for significant economic impact in both literature and case studies.
The findings of this study illustrate how the process of post-Soviet economic transition engenders, among others, significant spatial industrial restructuring. In addition to well-known changes in the characteristics of individual enterprises, these spatial aspects of restructuring can be key determinants of a firm's performance. Moreover, the effects of spatial restructuring appear as influencing both industry-specific and location-specific characteristics of firms. A number of previous studies have discussed overall economic structural changes in Kazakhstan, but only few highlight the regional-industrial perspective. A focus on regional issues is particularly relevant in this case, since Kazakhstani economic development was uneven and industrial activities are concentrated in certain geographical areas. The present study contributes to the existing literature through its perspective on regional development, at the industrial level. This is the first comprehensive analysis of regional industrial development in Kazakhstan based on research into individual firms. The study fills a gap by way analysing trends of industrial location in Kazakhstan in connection with characteristics of particular enterprises – factors the consideration of which should play a prominent role in the formulation of future regional and managerial policies.