This book addresses the issue of theoretical and practical aspects of establishing a study abroad program in such a non-traditional destination as Kazakhstan. It investigates Kazakhstan as a potential study abroad destination and discusses the issues of feasibility, timing, costs, location, areas of study, curricular and extra-curricular offerings, housing, safety, and a host of other critical questions necessary for establishing such a program.
The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. It possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts, both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector.
This paper presents a common approach for the unit commitment problem solving in a dispersed power system involving renewable energy sources on the example of Kazakhstan. The proposed methodology will help all interested organizations and structures to see the possibility of covering the shortage of power generation capacities by increasing the share of renewable energy sources in generating electricity and their parallel work with the existing generation facilities instead of commissioning of traditional energy sources. Also, according to this methodology, there is a possibility to choose the optimal source of renewable energy and the possibility of testing the operation of a part of the dispersed power system, as autonomous. This methodology includes the analyzing of impact of the regional and global energy trends, legislation and the potential for renewable energy sources. The numerical results show the possibility of solving the problem of unit commitment with renewables with the least operating costs and with the most optimal renewable energy source type in the region.
Kazakhstan's national property is natural, above all, fuel and energy resources, as well as technical and intellectual potential. Improving the efficiency of the use of technical potential, as well as all types of energy resources within the country using energy-saving technologies in industry and at home is one of the main objectives of the energy policy. The fuel and energy complex plays a special role in the development of the state, improving the quality of life of the population and is the basis for reviving the economy of the republic, which places it at the forefront of investment priority and accelerates development in all respects. The monograph examines the main issues of energy development in Kazakhstan: electrical systems and networks, automation, power plants and substations, unconventional and renewable energy sources. The aim of the work is to analyze the current state of energy in Kazakhstan. The issues of obtaining, converting and using electricity in the practice of man are described.
One of the most persistent Soviet legacies has been the promotion of the Russian language at the expense of other languages. This work evaluates the language poliy of Kazakhstan from Soviet times to its current implementation. For this purpose it provides a historical background and follows the development and impact of the Soviet and Kazakhstani policies, the challenges of the early independence and the conditions in which the language policy formulation began. It looks at the examples of Baltic States, Ukraine and Finland and their language policies in order to determine the aspects that might be applicable to Kazakhstan. Based on the information and analysis, it provides recommendations on encouraging the learning of Kazakh and avoiding potential conflict.
The emergence of five Central Asian Republics (CARs) - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan - following the Soviet collapse not only created a peculiar geopolitical and geostrategic situation, but also heralded in insurmountable challenges. The contemporary international significance of the CARs reflects their economic, energy and demographic potential, geographic location, and the level of their relations with other states, primarily neighbouring ones. Hydrocarbon reserves of Central Asia have further made the region cynosure of all eyes. Against this background, this book seeks to analyze the overall importance of Central Asia as a region, especially its geopolitical and geostrategic significance, its natural resources that have been affecting a very many powers in and around the region. Besides, this book examines how security in Central Asia has been a grave concern due to rise of non-traditional security threats such as terrorism, religious extremism, narcotics, HIV/AIDS, proliferation of arms etc. This book will cater to the needs of students, researchers, academicians, mediapersons and policy makers, who have been working on Central Asia.
In the monograph theoretical studies of international tourism have been carried out and deepened, the methodology of its study has been developed. The work identifies the place of Kazakhstan in the world ranking of countries in tourism development based on the cluster method of analyzing the world tourist potential. The analysis of the tourism impact on the economy of Kazakhstan that determined the contribution of tourism into the national added value has been carried out. On the basis of the studies the problems of international tourism development in Kazakhstan have been revealed which made it possible to develop recommendations on the prospects for its improvement. The monograph is intended for students, undergraduates, graduate students, university professors and researchers. The practical results can be used in the activities of tourist enterprises and organizations for the further improvement of statistical reporting and the system of international tourism indicators.
The vigorously growing economy of Asian countries requires a speedup in development of mineral resources, first of all, as concerns the fuel and energy supply. Mongolia may be an exporter of natural uranium as a fuel for nuclear power plants. The long-standing prospecting and exploration of Mongolia resulted in discovery of economic uranium deposits similar to those making up a basis of raw-material potential of atomic energetics in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. In the course of metallogenic and prospecting works in Mongolia, a great deal of uranium prospects has been found, and the systematic patterns of their spatial localization and temporal evolution outlined. The location of Mongolia in a system of global tectonic units determines the diversity of uranium ore provinces both in age and type. The comparative metallogenic analysis of Mongolia and adjacent regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China in combination with long-standing field works served as a basis for métallogénie subdivision of the Mongolian territory with respect to uranium occurrences. It has been established that the Late Mesozoic superimposed volcanotectonic structures as well as the basins formed in the Cenozoic epoch of arching and block-faulting are crucial for uranium metallogeny. The occurrences, prospects and deposits related to these ore-forming epochs are known from almost all districts of Mongolia. The diversity of geologic settings of uranium mineralization formed against the background of long and intricate tectonic evolution attracts relentless interest of specialists to various aspects of geology, geochemistry, and uranium potential of this complexly built territory rich in ore deposits. The main objective of this monograph is to describe the principal features of uranium geology and metallogeny in Mongolia. The author hopes that his contribution will promote further progress in forecasting of new deposits and efficient exploration in the regions of similar geologic setting. The monograph is written in such a style that readers could get acquaintance with the most important types of uranium mineralization and with the most representative deposits pertaining to each type. The main attention is paid to the characteristics that provide insights into formation conditions of uranium deposits and their localization.
Recently, large-scale surface-water or canal irrigation systems have been termed ‘a sunset industry’ (Rijsberman 2003). Handing over this sunset industry by means of irrigation management transfer (IMT) policies and the creation of water user associations (WUAs) has three main objectives: to increase efficiency, equity, and empowerment.The Uzbek government, together with the international organizations, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), is currently promoting IMT and the creation of WUAs nationwide. The onset of the policy seemed to be a rational development since the former state and collective farms, which were also responsible for water management on their territories, were disintegrating, and new private farms were emerging rapidly.This study seeks to assess the potential of IMT policies by examining the broader physical, organizational, socio-economic, and political factors that might facilitate or hinder the main objectives of IMT and the creation of WUAs. These factors are addressed and analyzed separately through eight case study chapters that address questions on basin water management, the organizational capacities, and the socio-political dependencies of the district water management departments, the potential for multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs), the politics of social network structures, and the process of land reforms.The study concludes that none of the external factors is conducive to the introduction of IMT policies and for creating WUAs. The implication is that IMT policies will not increase efficiency, equity, and empowerment, but could even worsen the water management situation. Furthermore, these policies will not increase the empowerment of either the WUAs or their members. Hence, under the current conditions, handing over the ‘sunset industry’ will not lead to a new sunrise for irrigation in Uzbekistan.Kai Wegerich is Assistant Professor at the Irrigation and Water Engineering Group of Wageningen University. He gained his PhD from the School of Oriental and African Studies/London University and worked as a researcher for the Centre for Development Research (ZEF in Bonn/Germany) and as a development worker for the German Development Service (DED) in Khorezm/Uzbekistan. Kai’s research interests are social and political aspects of water management in Central Asia, on which he published in various journals. He conducted fieldwork in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. Kai co-edited the special issue on ‘Emerging issues on land and water in Central Asia’ in the Journal Irrigation and Drainage systems (with Jochen Froebrich and Marinus G. Bos) and edited, together with Jeroen Warner, the book ‘The Politics of Water’.