Erscheinungsdatum: 10.02.2020, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: Fuel and energy complex of Kazakhstan, Titelzusatz: INNOVATIVE WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT, Autor: Sikhimbayev, Muratbay // Sikhimbayeva, Dinara, Verlag: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Sprache: Englisch, Rubrik: Wirtschaft // Sonstiges, Seiten: 316, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 489 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Yemelyanovo International Airport (Russian: ) (IATA: KJA, ICAO: UNKL) is a major airport in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia located 37 km northwest of Krasnoyarsk. It opened for operations in 1980. It is the main base of Aeroflot and S7 Airlines with large airliners and a separate military area. The main runway apron holds 47 aircraft. A smaller runway has its own terminal and meteorology office, and its apron holds 94 small aircraft. This is one of Siberia's airfields that can handle extra large-sized airliners such as the Airbus A380 and Antonov An-225. In November 2007, it was announced that Lufthansa Cargo might switch its Asian refueling and distribution point from Astana, Kazakhstan to Yemelyanovo Airport, because Russia would no longer permit Lufthansa the use of its air space for their Europe to Asia flights unless they could sell fuel. In July 2008 Lufthansa stated that it would move its cargo logistics hub from Astana to Yemelyanovo once the airport was brought up to ICAO safety standards.
The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. It possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts, both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector.
The monograph is devoted to the study of the fuel and energy complex innovative development problem in Kazakhstan. Theoretical and methodological foundations of innovative development of fuel and energy complex of the country are disclosed, an analysis and prospects of use of innovations and the innovation process in the fuel and energy complex are presented, the necessity of transformation of innovation system in the fuel and energy complex of Kazakhstan is proven and directions of the fuel and energy complex innovative development of Kazakhstan, including specific mechanisms to improve the innovation system of subsoil use of the Republic are offered. The book is intended for researchers, teachers, graduate students, specialists of public services and enterprises dealing with the problems of the fuel and energy complex of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan's national property is natural, above all, fuel and energy resources, as well as technical and intellectual potential. Improving the efficiency of the use of technical potential, as well as all types of energy resources within the country using energy-saving technologies in industry and at home is one of the main objectives of the energy policy. The fuel and energy complex plays a special role in the development of the state, improving the quality of life of the population and is the basis for reviving the economy of the republic, which places it at the forefront of investment priority and accelerates development in all respects. The monograph examines the main issues of energy development in Kazakhstan: electrical systems and networks, automation, power plants and substations, unconventional and renewable energy sources. The aim of the work is to analyze the current state of energy in Kazakhstan. The issues of obtaining, converting and using electricity in the practice of man are described.
There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources in Central Asia, which have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination in the future. Key sources and contaminated sites of concern are: The nuclear weapons tests performed at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Kazakhstan during 1949-1989. A total of 456 nuclear weapons tests have been perf- med in the atmosphere (86), above and at ground surface (30) and underground (340) accompanied by radioactive plumes reaching far out of the test site. Safety trials at STS, where radioactive sources were spread by conventional explosives. Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) within STS and outside STS in Kazakhstan, producing crater lakes (e.g., Tel'kem I and Tel'kem II), waste storage facilities (e.g., LIRA) etc. Technologically enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) due to U mining and tailing. As a legacy of the cold war and the nuclear weapon p- gramme in the former USSR, thousands of square kilometers in the Central Asia co- tries are contaminated. Large amounts of scale from the oil and gas industries contain sufficient amounts of TENORM. Nuclear reactors, to be decommissioned or still in operation. Storage of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes. In the characterization of nuclear risks, the risks are estimated by integrating the results of the hazard identification, the effects assessment and the exposure assessment.
The vigorously growing economy of Asian countries requires a speedup in development of mineral resources, first of all, as concerns the fuel and energy supply. Mongolia may be an exporter of natural uranium as a fuel for nuclear power plants. The long-standing prospecting and exploration of Mongolia resulted in discovery of economic uranium deposits similar to those making up a basis of raw-material potential of atomic energetics in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. In the course of metallogenic and prospecting works in Mongolia, a great deal of uranium prospects has been found, and the systematic patterns of their spatial localization and temporal evolution outlined. The location of Mongolia in a system of global tectonic units determines the diversity of uranium ore provinces both in age and type. The comparative metallogenic analysis of Mongolia and adjacent regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China in combination with long-standing field works served as a basis for métallogénie subdivision of the Mongolian territory with respect to uranium occurrences. It has been established that the Late Mesozoic superimposed volcanotectonic structures as well as the basins formed in the Cenozoic epoch of arching and block-faulting are crucial for uranium metallogeny. The occurrences, prospects and deposits related to these ore-forming epochs are known from almost all districts of Mongolia. The diversity of geologic settings of uranium mineralization formed against the background of long and intricate tectonic evolution attracts relentless interest of specialists to various aspects of geology, geochemistry, and uranium potential of this complexly built territory rich in ore deposits. The main objective of this monograph is to describe the principal features of uranium geology and metallogeny in Mongolia. The author hopes that his contribution will promote further progress in forecasting of new deposits and efficient exploration in the regions of similar geologic setting. The monograph is written in such a style that readers could get acquaintance with the most important types of uranium mineralization and with the most representative deposits pertaining to each type. The main attention is paid to the characteristics that provide insights into formation conditions of uranium deposits and their localization.
This Atlas presents geological-genetic models for the key mineral deposit types of Kazakhstan, including deposits of metallic and non-metallic mineral resources (ores, diamonds, and industrial minerals), and fuel and energy resources (hydrocarbons and uranium deposits). The geological models, which were developed by Kazakh geologists, are based on examples from studied deposits and ore fields. They feature detailed geological maps and cross-sections for each of the deposits discussed in this volume. Principles and methodologies used to construct these models utilize complex information in order to predict the parameters and scales of ore/mineral accumulation and the conditions of formation of the mineral resources. Such models permit a focused approach to be used in metallogenetic analysis, prognosis and prospecting of deposits. The Atlas addresses a broad range of specialists of economic geology dealing who study, explore and evaluate such deposits, and will also be of great use to geology students and economic geologist studying their formation.